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面对面交流平台中的隐性知识传递机制——基于卡文迪什实验室的案例分析
投稿时间:2014-10-10    点此下载全文
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张桂芳  吴戈  周程
1.北京大学科学与社会研究中心,北京 100871;2.北京大学工学院,北京 100871
基金项目:国家创新方法工作专项“科研项目知识产权管理创新的方法研究与应用示范”(2012IM040400)。
中文摘要:破解隐性知识的传递机理是寻求知识创新与管理途径的必要前提。本文以J.J.汤姆逊管理时期的卡文迪什 实验室为例,分析不同种类的隐性知识在面对面交流平台中的传递路径。研究发现:开放式的面对面交流平台有助于 基础研究部门隐性知识的传递。其中,与实验相关的辅助技能型隐性知识主要通过与外界同行的面对面交流被个体整 合利用,关于选题和实验方法的核心技能型隐性知识及其背后体现的思维和理念的认知型隐性知识则主要通过师徒之 间的面对面交流被个体内化吸收。认知型隐性知识相比技能型隐性知识,对促进知识创新和管理具有更深远的价值。 技术守门人首先要保证能充分调用技能型隐性知识的资源以备科学共同体研究之需,其次是努力塑造科学共同体的研 究惯例和文化氛围。本研究有助于科研单位或组织通过理解隐形知识的传递机理,优化其知识创新与管理的流程体 系,提升绩效水平。
中文关键词:隐性知识  传递  交流平台  技术守门人  基础研究
 
Tacit Knowledge Transfer Mechanism on the Face-to-face Communication Platform: A CaseAnalysis on Cavendish Laboratory
Zhang Guifang  Wu Ge  Zhou Cheng
1. Center for Social Studies of Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871; 2. College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871
Abstract:To understand the transfer mechanism of tacit knowledge is a precondition for knowledge innovation and management. This passage chooses Cavendish laboratory in the charge of J.J. Thomson as the case and analyses the transfer routes of different kinds of tacit knowledge. It indicates: an effective transfer of tacit knowledge in R&D departments to large degree depends on the openly face-to-face communication platform. The auxiliarily skilled tacit knowledge is integrated and employed by the individual through eternal communication platform, while the critical skilled tacit knowledge like experiment method and the cognitive tacit knowledge like experiment thought are learned and absorbed by the individual through internal communication platform. Compared to the skilled tacit knowledge, the cognitive tacit knowledge has a more far-reaching impact on basic research efficiency. A technological gate keeper firstly ensure to mobilize the resources of skilled tacit knowledge for the research need of scientific communities, secondly and more profoundly shape the research routines and cultural atmosphere of scientific communities. This research is helpful for research institutes to improve performance of knowledge innovation and management.
keywords:tacit knowledge, transfer, communication platform, technological gate keeper, basic research
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